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How do I find a book? Can I borrow this item? Can I get a copy? Can I view this online? Ask a librarian. People from higher-income households are more likely to own a computer than those from lower-income households.
Income Inequality: Views & Solutions From Experts - hardwascodis.tk
Device ownership also presents a substantial barrier to in-home Internet use for HUD-assisted households table 1. Only 44 percent of HUD-assisted renters own a desktop, laptop, netbook, or notebook computer. HUD-assisted households are also more likely to be smartphone-only users; Together, these trends further suggest that HUD-assisted renters are among the most disconnected households in the country.
Data from the — ConnectHome baseline survey indicate that, of the 69 percent of HUD-assisted ConnectHome households with some Internet access in the home including by smartphone , only 65 percent have a desktop or laptop computer or a tablet in their home, meaning that 35 percent of the ConnectHome households that have some Internet access in the home lack access to a device that can fully take advantage of connectivity. At the same time, about three-quarters of HUD-assisted ConnectHome households with some Internet access at home use a smartphone to access the Internet.
According to a Pew Research Center survey, 43 percent of all U. Additionally, 12 percent of nonadopters stated that their smartphone was sufficient, 10 percent responded that they had other options to get online outside the home, and 5 percent stated that Internet service was either unavailable or insufficient. The population of nonadopters can be categorized into two groups: those who do not use the Internet at all and those who use the Internet away from home; in , these groups consisted of 15 percent and 9 percent of U.
However, among those who use the Internet away from home — a population that tends, on average, to earn lower incomes — 44 percent cited financial reasons as the main limiting factor. Nonadopters can also be classified into two additional groups: never-adopters, who have never had in-home Internet access, and unadopters, who once had in-home Internet access but no longer do.
Graphic reprinted with permission from: U. Perhaps unsurprisingly, those with the lowest incomes are most likely to cite cost as the main barrier to having broadband access at home. Cost is also a substantial connectivity obstacle for HUD-assisted households that do not have in-home Internet access. Other reasons cited for lacking in-home Internet access were the ability to use the Internet away from home, lack of interest in using the Internet, being uncomfortable with using computers or the Internet, having difficulty obtaining service, and living in housing that is not wired for service.
At the same time, HUD-assisted households have a high incidence of being unadopters; the ConnectHome baseline survey revealed that 35 percent of surveyed households without home Internet access had such access in the past 76 compared with 12 percent of all nonadopting households. ConnectHome advances digital inclusion in ways that align with current frameworks for thinking about digital inequality. By incorporating connectivity, device access, and digital literacy, as well as opportunities for communities to build coalitions among local organizations, foster social networks, and integrate Internet access with job training and other social programs, 82 ConnectHome offers a platform to address digital inequality as a challenge that is both multidimensional and multilevel.
Indeed, many of the efforts advanced as part of ConnectHome address inequalities in equipment, autonomy, skill, purpose of use, and support, and provide opportunities to engage with family, community, neighborhood, and network dynamics that can shape digital inclusion. To address equipment inequalities, and because affordability is a significant barrier to access for HUD-assisted residents, 83 ConnectHome helps bring free and low-cost Internet and computing devices to HUD-assisted families. ConnectHome addresses inequalities in digital skills by promoting affordable digital literacy resources.
ConnectHome also encourages building regional and local partnerships and engaging local stakeholders, 92 which can build social supports for residents. These efforts include developing local collaborations between housing authorities, computing centers, schools, libraries, and nonprofits.
Finally, ConnectHome supports the development of community-specific implementation plans that account for local needs, stakeholders, and interests. In addition to researching the practical applications of digital inequality frameworks through ConnectHome, opportunities exist for further research into the complex relationships between low-income housing and Internet access.
8.1. Technology Today
First, researchers should continue analyzing the causal mechanisms through which wide-ranging social inequalities shape digital inequalities, and through which digital inequalities, in turn, affect other kinds of inequality. This area of research involves examining the causes and consequences of digital inequality and the kinds of models that might disrupt cyclical and mutually reinforcing inequalities.
Second, more research is needed into how the infrastructure supporting digital access, as well as the market dynamics and processes through which digital resources are developed and disseminated, affect inequality, and how these digital infrastructures could be built in ways that are increasingly inclusive. Continued research on these fronts can guide ongoing efforts to build a digital infrastructure and provide Internet access in ways that are increasingly inclusive. To the extent that digital inequality is both a cause and consequence of other socioeconomic disparities, efforts to increase Internet connectivity, device access, and digital literacy play an important role in stemming cycles of inequality over time.
Skip to main content. Digital Inequality and Low-Income Households Highlights Research on digital inequality has shifted toward frameworks that consider multiple dimensions and levels, including social supports and other neighborhood-level factors. Digital Inequality Frameworks Dominant approaches to thinking about and measuring digital inequality have evolved since the commercialization of the Internet in the mids.
Boulder, CO: Westview Press, Council of Economic Advisors; Kathryn Zickuhr. Katz and Carmen Gonzalez. Federal Communications Commission; Hargittai. Katz and Gonzalez , 59— Colin Rhinesmith. Dailey et al. John B. The White House. M van Dijk.
Wenhong Chen and Barry Wellman. Paul DiMaggio and Filiz Garip. Grusky, ed. DiMaggio and Hargittai. Van Dijk. Dimaggio and Hargittai, 2. Pew Research Center. Horrigan and Maeve Duggan. DiMaggio and Hargittai, 9— DiMaggio and Garip, ; Schradie, ; Katz and Gonzalez , —3. Katz and Gonzalez Van Dijk, Lee Rainie. DiMaggio and Hargittai, 12—3; Hargittai. Katz and Gonzalez , 63; Schradie. Katz and Gonzalez ; DiMaggio and Garip. Karen Mossberger et al. Mossberger et al.
Rhinesmith; Dailey et al. DiMaggio and Garip. Rhinesmith; J. Araque et al.
IPPR, the Institute for Public Policy Research, is the UK's leading progressive think tank
Rainie; Horrigan and Duggan. Council of Economic Advisors. Beede and Neville. Thom File and Camille Ryan. Census Bureau; Calvin Johnson. Johnson; Insight Policy Research. Horrigan and Duggan; Rhinesmith. File and Ryan. Horrigan and Duggan; Rainie.