She shows how, after Poe's ground-breaking essays, later theorists have resorted to making a vast range of comparisons, such as, for example, photographs, riddles and enigmas, while noting recurrent features, such as transcendental moments, epiphanies, stories with no story line.
However, in doing so, she is hardly breaking new theoretical ground. The collection is structured into four parts: on the origins of the genre and Poe's foundational theorising, on linguistic theories, on Postcolonialism, Orality and Gender approaches, and on the Postmodern short story and other varieties of short fiction. It begins with Antonio Lopez Santos's essay, "The Paratactic Structure in The Canterbury Tales: Two Antecedents of the Modern Short Story", which takes a traditional approach to demonstrate convincingly how the integration of the Wife of Bath's Prologue with her tale two texts at once real and mythical can be seen to anticipate Bakhtinian 'dialogism'.
Any panoramic view of the Short Story must include some acknowledgement of the genre's first master and theorist, Edgar Allan Poe. Of the two articles on Poe, Peter Gibian's well-written case-study, "Anticipating Aestheticism", provides an expert account of how Poe's short story "The Oval Portrait" and Nathaniel Hawthorne's "The Birth-Mark" form part of a longer dialogic exchange between the two writers, as the latter works to position himself on the question of Aestheticism.
The article then traces Poe's influence on French writers, particularly Baudelaire, analysing convincingly Poe's "The Man of the Crowd" and "The Purloined Letter" and their use of the 'reader-in-the-tale' figure as "an experimental process of interaction between subjectivities that begins with the investigating subject putting himself in the place of the subject to be studied" Through the aestheticized anti-heroes of longer works such as Huysman's A Rebours and Wilde's Dorian Gray, the circle of influence is closed by Gibian's final section, which demonstrates how Poe's aesthetic Author: John Style.
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In the final stage of this lesson, Evan and his class debrief about the experiment and its results. Specifically, consider how having students 1 view a video excerpt of a real world example of a physics concept, 2 collaborate with classmates to devise hypotheses about it, 3 evaluate the hypotheses collectively, then 4 design experiments and debrief on the tested hypotheses provides a chance to apply content knowledge authentically, demonstrate higher engagement, and synthesize ideas arguably more significantly than textbook-based instruction alone.
The instructional decisions and inclusions that Alicia, David, Marie, and Evan made while designing their lessons exemplify how the theories of multiliteracies, new literacies, and multimodality can support the literacy skill development of adolescents who have a diverse range of learning needs, styles, and abilities.
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In addition, it is important to note that teachers should consider several factors if they plan on implementing this framework in their own instructional design processes. Some are discussed below. First, it is critical to have knowledge of the degree to which students have access to digital tools and technology outside of school. A common false assumption is that all students in classes have access to computers at home or own smart devices e. In the English language arts example, Alicia made sure that all of her students were capable of using the device of their choice to record themselves reading their personal narratives.
In addition, she ensured all students knew the process they needed to follow in order to transfer the recording to flash drive or DVD; those who were unsure met with her after school or during a free class period so she could teach them how to do so. Also, it is essential that educators provide uniform access to technological tools and resources—and, therefore, the means with which to gain experience and skills using them—to all students.
These opportunities are all the more critical for students who have limited or no access to such resources, and the school setting may be the only place they gain such exposure and experience.
Another consideration essential for teachers is to consider their own levels of comfort and competence with digital tools and technology. All four teachers described in this chapter were familiar with and felt confident using a variety of technology including computers, digital cameras, and web-based resources. Inviting students to share their knowledge of and expertise with new and digital technologies provides them with a chance to share the authoritative role in the classroom and cultivates an authentic community of learners. With regard to resources available through schools, addressing multiliteracies, new literacies, and multimodality in instructional design need not require abundant and the most up-to-date technological advancements.
These examples emphasize that when educators incorporate these theoretical constructs into their instruction using a variety of strategies and materials—including those that require no technology—the potential to enhance literacy instruction for adolescents is significant. Additional examples of modifications illustrating how these three theories can be incorporated into instruction are included in Table 1.
This chapter explored adolescent literacy and literacy instruction from a 21st century perspective. The three theories of multiliteracies, new literacies, and multimodality underpinned the information and analyses presented. The point that nearly all aspects of life—personal, social, academic and professional—will be increasingly influenced by new technologies and literacy skills related to them is clear, and therefore, educators must consider instructional practices that will best prepare students for present and future success. In combination, the three theories described in this chapter are a useful framework with which to design effective literacy instruction for adolescents.
Multiliteracies theory offers the perspective that as new technologies and literacy practices emerge, they require a growing variety of skills—many of which have yet to be considered. Consequently, educators should find relevant ways to include them in the teaching and learning that occurs in their classrooms.
Multimodality theory provides a context that represents day-to-day life as an on-going process of comprehending and communicating through the countless, prevalent modes we encounter. Finally, teachers should consider the range of strategies and resources available to them to incorporate into their literacy instruction. Albers, P. The arts, new literacies, and multimodality. English Education, 40 1 , Alvermann, D.
Is there a place for popular culture in curriculum and classroom instruction? Eakle Ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Center of Applied Special Technology. Universal d esign f or l earning g uidelines version 2. Wakefield, MA: Author. Chappell, S. Young people talk back: Community arts as a public pedagogy of social justice. Sandlin, B. Burdick Eds. New York, NY: Routledge.
Exploring the online comprehension strategies of sixth-grade skilled readers to search for and locate information on the Internet. Reading Research Quarterly, 42, Compton-Lilly, C.
Twenty-First Century Perspectives on Adolescent Literacy and Instruction | Steps to Success
Reading time: The literate lives of urban secondary students and their families. Cope, B. London, England: Routledge. Hafeli, M. Exploring studio materials: Teaching creative art making to children. Halliday, M.
Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language and meaning. London, England: Edward Arnold. Hull, G. Jewitt, C. An introduction to multimodality.
Short Story Theories
Jewitt Ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Routledge. Multimodal literacy pp. New York, NY: P. Kress, G. Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. Lankshear, C. The new literacies: Everyday practices and social learning. Leu, D. Toward a theory of new literacies emerging from the Internet and other information and communication technologies.
Unrau Eds. Lewis, E. Young writers program for migrant youth. Faltis Eds. McLaren, P. Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education. White Plains, NY: Longman. Miller, S.