The energies are the eigenvalues of this equation. Notice that there are infinite eigenfunctions, and each one has a defined eigenvalue. Mathematically, any value would work, and none of the boundary conditions impose any restriction on its value. Using the primitives found in the formula sheet, we get:. We solved our first problem in quantum mechanics! First, because the potential energy inside the box is zero, the total energy equals the kinetic energy of the particle i.

### The Equations

A ping-pong ball inside a macroscopic box can move at any speed we want, so its kinetic energy is not quantized. If a ping-pong ball moves freely inside the box we can find it with equal probability close to the edges or close to the center.

Not for an electron in a one-dimensional box! The probability of finding the electron is greater at the center than it is at the edges; nothing like what we expect for a macroscopic system. The plot is symmetric around the center of the box, meaning the probability of finding the particle in the left side is the same as finding it in the right side. That is good news, because the problem is truly symmetric, and there are no extra forces attracting or repelling the particle on the left or right half to the box.

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Looking at figure [fig:pib1], you may think that the probability of finding the particle at the center really 2. How can this be?

### Mathematical Representations

Probabilities cannot be greater than 1! So far we talked about a system that sounds pretty far removed from anything we chemists care about.

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We understand electrons in atoms, but electrons moving in a one-dimensional box? Because the length of each carbon-carbon bond is around 1. This is obviously an approximation, as it is not true that the electrons move freely without being subject to any force. Yet, we will see that this simple model gives a good semi-quantitative description of the system. These are the energies that the particle in the box is allowed to have.

Notice that we have everything we need to use eq. Coming back to eq. Notice that the energies increase rapidly. The number of levels is inifinite, but of course we know that the electrons will fill the ones that are lower in energy.

## Non Regular Differential Equations And Calculations Of Electromagnetic Fields

This is analogous to the hydrogen atom. We know there are an infinite number of energy levels, but in the absence of an external energy source we know the electron will be in the 1s orbital, which is the lowest energy level. This electron has an infinite number of levels available, but we need an external source of energy if we want the electron to occupy a higher energy state. Download preview PDF. Skip to main content. Advertisement Hide. Authors Authors and affiliations A.

## A Plain Explanation of Maxwell's Equations – Fosco Connect

Babayan S. Article First Online: 16 November This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Lions and E. Google Scholar. SSR Ser. MathSciNet Google Scholar. Nauk Armen.

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